Forth

What is Forth?

People have often dreamed of programming computers with a natural language such as English, but the problem of ambiguity remains insuperable. Forth, like English, is made up of words separated by spaces but it has a simpler syntax, made possible by the use of a stack (computer hardware).

Unlike other computer languages there are no lists of parameters enclosed in brackets when 'calling' a subroutine. Instead of saying Call Add(2,2) or +(2,2) we say 2 2 +. Each word stands on its own. When we say + the computer does not have to wait to discover what to add, because it is already there, on the stack. The noun always comes before the verb that acts on it, as is natural in English whenever urgent commands are issued.

Programming consists of defining new words, using those the computer already knows. Thus enlargening the Dictionary, which could be thought of as 'The Program' but also the Forth system. Forth encourages short definitions which can be tested as soon as they are written. In that way, when a bug appears, you can be pretty sure it is in the last word you defined, not somewhere in several pages of code.

Since the entire language structure is embodied in words, the application programmer can "extend" Forth to add new operators, program constructs, or data types at will. The Forth "core" includes operators for integers, addresses, characters, and boolean values; string and floating-point operators may be optionally added. Forth has been called "a language for writing languages" - by defining new words you create the language that best describes the problem in hand. Indeed, most of a Forth system is itself written in Forth, and the essential core is so small and simple that it is perfectly possible for an amateur to write their own Forth. There are however many implementations available.

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